Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Creativity in different forms of everyday writing, factors account for Assignment

Creativity in different forms of everyday writing, factors account for the emergence of creativity in written forms - Assignment Example No matter the kind of definition provided to explain writing, it is appreciable that the essence of creative writing is to convey the human imagination to the people in the most convenient, effective and understandable manner. Effective writing can be evaluated by the creativity features that can be identified in any piece of literary work and the clarity of the message alluded in the work. In general, a creative writing will provide information in the most conspicuous manner possible and the recipients of a message should be gratified. The essence of this essay is to identify features of creative writing and to identify the factors that have culminated in the emergence of creativity in linguistic writing. Various scholars have presented different definitions and dimensions of creative writing as applied in linguistics today. Harper (2010) expresses the complexity of defining creative writing in the field of linguistics and is of the opinion that scholarly definitions of these terms as mere attempt. However, he pays a keen attention to the reference of creative writing as a by-product of a mind that is acquiring a new image of operation. The concept of this definition is rather unique and sees creative writing as an expression of the human mind in a planned and orderly manner. From the words of this author, creative writing is not only an art of the mind but also an art of the hands that must be coordinated to achieve creativity and the originality implied in this definition. However, Harper (2010) disregards this definition and he feels that this kind of definition lacks the concept of planning that must be accounted in any definition of creative writing. Schlepphege (2010), another scholar, has provided a different dimension of creativity in the modern creativity research as the process of producing a whole new concept in the society. The author makes a direct connection to the concept of creation in its literal meaning as the process making something new, an d presenting it to the community. From this point of view, creative writing is an art of bringing up new acts, thoughts and idea in the society. The implication of this definition is that to evaluate whether writing is creative or not, one would require evaluating if a piece of work presents a new concept. Schlepphege (2010) states that all forms of literary works such as poetry, drama, fiction, speeches or even song lyrics must express a new form of expression, communication or even self-awareness in human beings. In addition, creative writing is not a product of writing expertise but a natural urge of human beings to communicate or express themselves. Maybin and Swann, (2007) have analysed the language in two different dimensions in the attempt of explaining the practical application of creativity in contemporary writing. The two authors evaluate feel that language use takes either a textual or a contextual sense and creativity will revolve around these two dimensions of language use. The textual sense of language use refers to the linguistic forms and structures that are used to express an intended brain perception by a writer. Example of this kind of use of language use is expression of irony in voice intonation, use of word play in comic writing and the use of images to express an emotional feeling is

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Organisational Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Organisational Culture - Essay Example In human resource management, most people assume that people can be measured on personality and IQ tests, and computing the resultant set of numbers to define these people. This is often not so, because efficiency is not an economic concept, but a political concept involving cost, and quality of process time. Also some people see inefficiency to be a "sin" in modern terms, which is very much in contrast with the 20th century efficiency of the Nazis, for example. The east neaden dietary department is run by a team of 6 nurses, three dieticians and one doctor. "There is also a consultant who is available 3 times a week and a clinical psychologist who visits twice a week." (Marlow, Nigel). The type of culture that existed in the east neasden dietory department before the change was one of familiarity and friendly worker relationships. This is evident in the fact that the staff called each other by their first names, and the doctors were called by their first names, except in the presence of patients. However there was a change in the organizational structure and this brought about a change in the culture in East Neasden Dietary department. After the organizational change which was accomplished by using the handy theory a... There are indeed, various reasons for change. Some factors that can trigger change in an organization, like competition and the need to be commercially realistic or viable. Allen, Madison, Porter, Renwick and Mayes noted that "organizational politics involves intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self interest of groups, or individuals in a group" (Allen, Madison, Porter, Renwick and Mayes 1979) In the Interflora case, there was a need to be commercially viable and realistic, hence the need for organizational change, and the dynamics involved in such a change. An Analysis of corporate types Corporate culture is the key to organizational performance, and when effectively managed, can lead to an improvement in a company's competitive advantage. Going by Michael Maccoby's analysis of corporate types, there are four main types of corporate personality. These are the company man, the Jungle Hunter, the craftsman, and the Gamesman. The company man defers to authority in the company, while the jungle hunter tends to be coercive in temperament, and strives to acquire power within the company. For the craftsman, his identity is his craft as an engineer, accountant, I.T. personnel or other craft. The gamesman operates with a lot of politicking and uses stealth and subtlety to achieve power. REFERENCES Allen, R. W., Madison, D. L., Porter, L. W., Renwick, P. A. and Mayes, B. T. (1979)Organizational politics: Tactics and characteristics of its actors. Californiamanagement review Maccoby, Michael. (1976) Michael Maccoby's Analysis of Corporate Types Marlow, Nigel. East

Monday, January 27, 2020

Bharti and Walmart in the Indian retail market

Bharti and Walmart in the Indian retail market India: A Preferred Destination? The cradle of one of the oldest human civilization, India is a kaleidoscope of cultures, ideologies and topographies. A democracy supported by mixed economy, it provides a market comprising of close to 1.2 billion consumers, most of whom are young (below 25 years of age). The judiciary is separate from legislative branch to facilitate a free and just society. The country has witnessed robust GDP growth over the past couple of decades, following economic liberalization in 91. The economy is expected to touch a growth rate of 9.5% in 2010. Some other key indicators are listed below. Source: World Bank Emerging relatively unscathed from the Global recession of 2008-09, India exhibited its prowess in managing foreign policies and business. It seems that it is poised for its next stage of growth. It is expected that if overall economic growth remains around 7 to 8 percent then consumption will soar. According to Mckinsey, real consumption will grow from 17 trillion Indian rupees today to 70 trillion Indian rupees by 2025, a fourfold increase. This will put India in the premier league among the worlds consumer markets. Presently, its consumer market ranks 12th. The Great Indian Bazaar With more than 12 million outlets, the retail industry contributes nearly 14% to the GDP of India and employs more than 18 million people. A.T. Kearneys annual Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) ranked India as No. 2 retail destination (India held the top spot from 2005-07). The history of this sector can be traced back to village melas and haats, which subsequently evolved into convenience stores and cooperatives until the modern day retailing formats such as hypermarts, malls and supercentres. However the industry is still fragmented; organized retail constitutes a meagre 4% of retail sector in this country. On the bright side, the organized retail is set to grow at a CAGR of 50% and set to be worth $90 billion by the end of 2010. Major factors contributing to this rapid growth are changing lifestyles, strong income growth and favourable demographic profile. A lot of multinational players like Carrefour, TESCO and Wal-Mart have been sitting on fence waiting to enter India and g ain a share of this increasing pie. WalMart WalMart a globally recognized retail format was started by Sam Walton. It relied on the concept of discounting products to attract buyers. WalMart relied on the concept of operating in mid-sized towns which didnt have a retail store and built its base by opening in smaller towns; which eliminated competition. It implemented a robust distribution channel while leveraging economies of scale to ensure on-time delivery for all its diverse range of SKUs. WalMart relied on the concept of EDLP (Every Day Low Price) to sell its products. WalMart proposes to enter India in the Cash Carry Format (CC) for which distribution and supply-chain management will be the key elements in determining its success.Its operating income in FY 2010 was $24 billion over revenue of $ 405 billion and in all 8500 retail units. 64% of sales still came from WalMart USA against 25% of international sales. As of today, the only retail unit opened in India is in Amritsar with plans of opening 15 more soon. Leadership in Operations Supply Chain Management Leadership in operations came through following certain basic principles such as: Every Day Low Prices WalMart is the preferred choice for various customers for providing the promise of constant prices every time a customer walked in the store. The prices were around 20% less than the competition. They also followed a variety of other philosophies such as: Rollback Philosophy All the savings made during the operational efficiency attained was passed down to the customer through continuous negotiations and whenever an opportunity arose. Special Buy Logo WalMart from time to time flagged many of its items with the Special Buy logo to attract customers. It could be any of the regularly available items with a mark-up in quantity or a mark-down in prices till stocks last. The focus on customer was relentless. Customer service received immense importance with a philosophy to exceed customer expectations through the Sundown Rule answering customer queries by the End of Business hours and Ten Feet Rule to serve customers by greeting and asking if he/she needed anything while at WalMart. Success Model of WalMart Cost Control Culture WalMart believes in controlling cost through reducing operational expenses and maintaining a lean organization. This is followed to an extent that it became WalMarts core capability. Everyone from the top management to employee followed this rule diligently. Scott Lee, Chairman of the Executive Board and CFO Tom Schoewe too followed by travelling economy class and sharing budget hotels. Supplier Network One of the notable features of WalMart is its large network of suppliers. It also enjoyed a major bargaining advantage with them. It maintained operational excellence by pushing its suppliers to do the same through various methods. Logistics Distribution WalMart owns one of the largest fleet of trucks which helps it in retail operations immensely when IT was not yet a strategic factor. Later sourcing was centralized and its hub-spoke distribution model became robust providing inventory to 8500 units. Advent of EDI and RFID for its shipments were also beneficial for its logistic systems. Small Town Locations The factor of running WalMart in small towns was a successful idea but something that WalMart will not do considering its leadership potential. Various Initiatives taken for SCM WalMart has been continuously working towards getting its costs down and provide its benefit to its customers. Some of the recent developments have been: Arrival of RFID chips to track shipments WalMart has become its own freight forwarder which means that it will provide logistics support using its 6500 trucks and 55000 trailers and help reduce suppliers their wholesale price wherever suppliers are not able to This will help use excess capacity of WalMart and at the same time ensure that they get better efficiency from their suppliers Movement towards green-SCM by being users of renewable energy 100% in 7 years, reduce energy consumption by 30% in 7 years, create zero waste WalMart also has the state-of-the-art ERP solutions to support its logistics infrastructure Bharti-WalMart in India Since Government regulations became a deterrent in FDI in India, WalMart was forced to create a JV between Bharti WalMart USA which was floated as a separate entity. With just 26% investment allowed by foreign player, prospect of WalMart to operate independently has become a distant dream. Another rule that works against them is the prohibition of foreign investment in Multi-brand retail. In April, a rule said that transactions between group companies should be limited to 25% of the sales was implemented. This was challenged by Bharti-WalMart Private Ltd. And the Finance Ministry conceded that such a rule was flawed but still the 25% cap on the volume of trade will continue to stay. Bharti-WalMart is adopting creative ways of gaining favor with the government by opening its second Bharti-WalMart training institute that would train and provide jobs to people in the field of cash and carry format of stores. This also comes as a strategic move in a scenario where talent acquisition is a challenge for WalMart. A Memorandum of Agreement was signed between Bharti-WalMart and Department of Technical Education (New Delhi) Currently WalMart is leading the lobbying of opening up multi-brand retail in India by various requests being made to the Ministry of Industry Commerce. Analysis of a partnership between Bharti and Walmart Bharti and Walmart seem to be a good fit for each other. Bharti is a seasoned Indian player with good relationships with local enterprises and governments. Walmart has expertise in providing maximum value to consumers at lowest cost. Bharti knows the rules of the game and will save Wal-Mart a lot of time and energy to overcome the system. Walmarts logistics capability and Bhartis execution expertise will form a potent combination; therefore on paper the venture looks great. They have taken a step in the right direction by going in with Cash n carry format first as the government allows foreign partnership only in this sector, this will sort out the operational issues of the partnership. Though this franchise strategy with Bharti was a deviation from Wal-Marts usual way of entering countries, it was because the policy restrictions on foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Indian retail sector. As part of the agreement, Bharti was expected to pay a royalty between 2 percent and 3 percent of sales to Wal-Mart for using the latters brand name. As the retail sector is opened up for foreign players Bharti-Walmart is expected to be a formidable force in the Indian retail. The retail industry in India is estimated at about US$ 300 billion and is expected to grow to US$ 427 billion in 2010 and US$ 637 billion in 2015. The biggest competitor for Bharti-Wal-Mart is expected to be Reliance Retail, the retail wing of Reliance, which had planned to establish 10,000 stores by end of 2010. Even Pantaloon Retail, the retail arm of the Future Group was expected to give stiff competition as it has a first-mover advantage. The strength of these companies lies in understanding the Indian consumer better, Bharti with years of experience with Indian consumer and a famed success story can help Walmart overcome the competition. Besides competitive forces a major threat to this venture is the Indian governments policies, the government under political pressure from huge mom and pop stores which control the majority of sales in Indian retail can not just allow big players like Walmart to enter Indian market. Entry of Walmart may put lot of middle class people out of business whose sole source of income are these small retail stores. Besides this Walmart-Bharti will find it tough to beat the economies of small stores which are most of the times just walking distance from the consumer and have long term relationships with consumers. In sum, the Bharti-Walmart venture has a lot of positives on paper but it will be interesting to see how the venture performs once Indian retail is opened up. There are lot of competitive forces and other factors which may put the relationship under immense stress. Porters Five Force Analysis Indian consumers are gradually transiting from their habit of saving. They are becoming more brand conscious and starting to look upon retail shopping as an experience rather than an obligation. Global retailers would be happy to serve Indian markets but a major challenge is the strict Government regulation policy which restricts FDI to wholesale business. As of 2006, GoI allowed 51% FDI in multi-brand retailers and 100% FDI in wholesale (typically cash and carry format) and back-end logistics. It is in this context that we need to analyze the entry of Wal-Mart into India. SWOT Analysis of Bharti Strengths Large group with diversified investments Expertise in operating in developing countries Deep pockets to funds new businesses Started by an entrepreneur, that sense still prevails in the top management Weaknesses Slowing growth because of competition in prime area of operations : telecom Large size, has made the company somewhat bureaucratic No big and streamlined plan for future Focus on defending its advantage in Indian telecom sector Present in just south Asia and Africa Opportunities Enjoys good relations with governments/companies in India- one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It can move into other businesses easily A lot of new sectors coming up in Indian economy like retail, financial services etc. Has invested in branding of Bharti over the years, consumers have instant brand recognition with Bharti brand With opening of Indian economy it can tie up with huge MNCs to get the technical expertise Investors ready to invest in Bhartis new businesses because of positive experience with Bharti Airtel Threats Huge in Indian Telecom sector, can be tied down by competition here A lot of its businesses can be highly impacted by governments licensing decisions Indian economy is opening up with large MNCs setting up bases on their own, these pose direct competitive threats to Bhartis businesses The governments in India can change and Bharti may not enjoy the same relationships with new government SWOT Analysis of Walmart Strengths Wal-Mart has a reputation for value for money, convenience and a wide range of products all in one store. Wal-Mart has grown exponentially over recent years, and has experienced global expansion (for example its purchase of the United Kingdom based retailer ASDA). The company is adept at using information technology to support its international logistics system. For instance, Wal-Mart can see how individual products are performing in different countries and stores at a glance. IT also supports Wal-Marts efficient procurement. Human resource management and development are key elements of Wal-Marts strategy. It invests time and money in training people, and retaining them. Weaknesses Wal-Mart is the Worlds largest retailer; despite its IT advantages its size poses an inherent weakness. Walmart lacks flexibility since it is spread across many product categories. Despite being global it is present in only few countries across the world. Opportunities To form strategic alliances with other global retailers in China and eastern Europe Walmart is present in limited number of countries, the opportunity exists for it to expand in growing markets like India and China New types of stores offer Wal-Mart opportunities to exploit market development. They diversified from large super centres, to local and mall-based sites. Opportunities exist for Wal-Mart to continue with its current strategy of large, super centres. Threats Being a leader means that Wal-Mart has to fend off competition, locally and globally. Walmart may be exposed to political environments in countries that it is present. The cost of producing many consumer products has reduced because of lower manufacturing costs. Manufacturing costs are also low due to outsourcing to low-cost regions of the World. This has lead to price competition, resulting in price deflation and such intense price competition is a threat. The story thus far The entry strategy of Wal-Mart in India has been drastically different from that followed by the company when it expanded first in the markets outside US. The launches in China and Germany were marked by huge media frenzy just before the opening day leading to a deluge of customers thronging the stores. Also, Wal-Mart opted for metros and major cities to kick-off their operations since the urban customer was expected to be more aware of the brand Wal-Mart and thus the target market selected. Wal-Mart tweaked its strategy by making a low-key entry in Amritsar, Punjab in May 2009. There was also a deliberate attempt to avoid attention to the brand Wal-Mart by naming the initiative Best Price Modern Wholesale. Bestprice-modern-wholesale.jpg The emphasis in the logo is on Best Price with both Bharti and Walmart logo in small font acting as the supporters rather than the drivers of the project. The reasons for such a strategy are as follows: Local Opposition: Over the past 5 years various pilot retail ventures in India have met with stiff resistance from local communities especially farmers and retail store owners. By making its entry a low-key affair, Wal-Mart does not want to attract undue attention. Also, since it is the Cash and Carry business, there is no to blow the trumpet when the target audience is itself the retailer and not the end customer. The requirement was a focused and not high profile entry and Wal-Mart executed it accordingly Competition: Metro and other Cash and Carry giants started off their operations in India by opening stores in Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai and other metros. The hinterland thus offered opportunities in terms of untapped market. Wal-Mart recognizes and acknowledges the fact that more than 10 million other tiny retailers in India are its greatest challenge and greatest opportunity. If it can win them over, they are likely to become its biggest customers. Anger them and they could use their political power to block expansion. Cash Rich State: At first glance, opting hinterland over metros seems consistent with Wal-Marts US strategy where the company expanded by targeting small towns because of low cost of entry. There is, in fact, more to the same. Punjab in years since the Green Revolution has had among the highest per capita income levels in the country. Thus, it makes sense for Wal-Mart to enter a cash-rich state. Brand Recognition: Even though Wal-Mart has made a low key entry de-emphasizing the brand Wal-Mart, the customer needs to have enough trust in the organization he is making the transaction with. The name Wal-Mart is in some ways familiar in Punjab due to the large diaspora from the region in US/Canada and thus breeds recognition. In order to make enhance their image in the region, Wal-Mart has also embarked upon a host of social initiatives. 1. Donation of push carts to village vendors. 2. Part time employment to cart vendors and senior citizens 3. Plantation drive: Planting saplings around the store 4. Mera Kirana and Business Solutions Centers to help small and medium retailers implement best retailing practices The Wal-Mart strategy so far has been low-decibel while steadily gaining acceptance of the local community. This is essential for when the FDI in retail is finally approved by the government, the company shall hope to make a smooth transition from Cash and Carry to their traditional stores and announce the same, hopefully, with a bang. Will WalMart succeed in India? India boasts of a buzzing retail market with growing incomes. However WalMart must realize that it will face woes in forward logistics considering that India loses 40% of its produce due to storage and transportation issues. Even if WalMart builds up its fleet in India, the logistics network in India is far from the best. Indias highway network can carry around 65% of freight traffic and 85% of passenger traffic and many National Highway Development projects not yet complete the challenge will be immense to be cost-effective. Many of the SCM initiatives followed by WalMart will take more time to get implemented in India including the RFID initiative, green SCM initiative. However freight forwarding is something that WalMart can look at to increase their effectiveness in India. Analysts say that typically cost-measures taken in investments in cold-storage and other logistics measures take around 3-5 years to yield benefits. Currently with the single-store in Amritsar, the backyard of wheat-bowl of India such a problem is averted. Analysts also have pointed out that a supply-chain of international standard will take at least a decade before it comes to India. WalMart is also facing issues in terms of keep itself away from its share of controversies. With an intention of staying low-profile in India to avoid any retaliation from local retailers it opted for an alternate name Best Price Modern Wholesalers logo, which was claimed to have 4 trademarks already by the Department of Trademarks. With the existing Government regulations the growth story of WalMart in India looks slow to moderate in medium term. With a new target of opening just 7 stores and hiring around 1100 employees against the existing 450 employees says about the sentiment of Bharti-WalMart in India. Commentary on Walmart WalMart is presumably doing many things right by playing its cards intelligently and in sync to the Indian sentiments of not being too pushy about its prospects in India. Also taking up initiatives to gain local sentiment is something that will work in its favor. Government on the other hand is also looking towards easing out rules in Cash and Carry Format which could benefit WalMart and speed up plans for same.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Barack Obama, “Dreams from My Father”.

Being still young, Barack Obama started searching for society and reason, with the large function forms of the public rights movement. In his search he does well and deserves respect. He had a lot of abilities to set the connections with the society and this is told in his autobiography â€Å"Dreams from My Father†. The fame days of the public rights actions passed away when Obama receives a coordinating position in a needy district on Chicago's South Side inundated by broken public lodgings, dying constructing occupations, and increasing misdeed. Obama decodes the bounds of their beginning situation.The community's creator is a person who is not entirely respected by the society. Its primary partners are the Catholic Churches, which have unhealthy relations with their new Black worshippers. In Chicago the population has just chosen Harold Washington, the first Black foremost who is respected as a worship person, but whose benefaction is providing restricted advantages to the groups that voted for him. At the same time as Obama persistently fixes the vagueness and refinement of Black people, there are a couple of things where he doesn't accept enough.When Obama began the coordinating job, one of the primary difficulties was the antipathy of the three women, who were irritated that the supervisor brought the young guy Obama has his own understanding, control and esteem, charm and empathy to believe in his achievement, but he doesn't completely accept the advantages of the middle class viewpoint and male advantage that understood him as â€Å"in charge† and â€Å"going places. † When Obama decodes the supporting background, he creates individual links. He communicates with the three Black women who have some positions in the community, and gets acquainted with an odd, Catholic coordinator.He founds Kyle, the child of an assistant who is in risk to appear in difficult situation. One of the most touching places in the book is the place telling how Obama informs the community he is leaving to Harvard Law school, and gives his word to his acquaintances in the district that he'll come. The combination of optimism, political insightfulness and individual links are the foundations of Obama's political success. Works Cited Graff, E. J. â€Å"Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. † The American Prospect 10 Sept. 2001: 42.

Friday, January 10, 2020

The National Coalition Against the Death Penalty

The death penalty has been a fairly contentious issue in the United States since 1930 when statistics first began to be regularly collected. By the late 1960s, an unofficial moratorium took place due to mounting opposition to the law that was authorized in all but 10 states. In 1972, the Supreme Court struck down the ‘arbitrary and capricious' state and federal death penalty laws (History of the Death Penalty, â€Å"Death Penalty† & â€Å"Moratorium†). However, the 1976 rulings re-imposing the capital punishment brought to the fore the gravity of the issue for the American public. The Supreme Court decision bringing back the controversial law was met with concerted efforts by those who vigorously oppose death penalty. One entity that perhaps best symbolizes opposition to its reinstatement is the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty (NCADP), a coalition organization formed shortly after the Supreme Court ruling. The NCADP has, since its formation in 1976, been the only national organization with a full staff that is devoted exclusively to the abolishment of the capital punishment. Its work includes the providing of information and public policy advocates and the mobilization of, and support for, individuals and institutions sharing the unconditional rejection of the death penalty (National Coalition  ¶ 1). NCADP Mission and Goals The main argument of the NDADP in its stand against the death penalty is the belief that the ultimate punishment equates to the devaluation of all human life. With the execution of the capital offender, the organization believes that the spiritual transformation intrinsic to every human being is denied. The organization also argues three other critical concerns, namely: the irrevocability of the capital punishment within a dishearteningly fallible judicial system; the law's race and class bias against the poor and racial minorities, and the death penalty's intrinsic violation of our most basic human rights. The National Coalition for the Abolition of the Death Penalty, based in Washington D.C., boasts of a 30-year history of organizing opposition to the U.S. death penalty (Hogan & Hartson Announcements). One of the more prominent heads of NCADP has been Sister Helen Prejean CSJ, a Roman Catholic nun of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Medaille. Serving the organization from 1993 to 1995, Prejean became a crusader against the death penalty following her ministering and witnessing many executions beginning with that of Louisiana convicted murderer Elmo Patrick Sonnier. Her autobiographical account of the relationship she made with Sonnier became the basis for the film and opera Dead Man Walking. (Helen Prejean  ¶ 1-4). The mission of the National Coalition Against the Death Penalty is organized around the four central mission areas of legislative advocacy, grassroots advocacy, media advocacy and human rights advocacy. Believing that the abolition of the capital punishment in the United States can be achieved using a multi-faceted approach, the NCADP spells out its four-core mission as follows: Legislative Advocacy – cooperating with policy-makers and their constituents to adopt legislation that opposes the death penalty at the local, state, as well as national level. Media Advocacy – using mainly local and state media to broaden the public criticism of the capital punishment. Grassroots Advocacy – providing assistance to NCADP affiliates in organizing activities that oppose the death penalty and in reaching out to American communities to take a stand against the death penalty. Human Rights Advocacy – highlighting the capital punishment as a violation of human rights and   Ã‚  Ã‚   working to gain the support of the world in abolishing the death penalty in the United States. (National Coalition â€Å"Our Focus†). NCADP Strategy and Tactics The organization conducts its campaign against capital punishment using its four non-violent advocacy methods at the local, state and national levels. (National Coalition, Wikipedia  ¶ 2). The use of information dissemination is an important tool of the NCADP towards the goal of abolishing death penalty in the United States. Primarily using the local media, which it believes to be the greater news source of the American public, NCADP works to inform about facts and figures that strengthen the call against capital punishment. Through other media outlets including its website www.ncadp.org and the national media, it presents many eye-opening if not disturbing data on the modern implementation of death penalty in the country. The death penalty related information the NCADP provides is essentially statistics-based, perhaps in the effort to be scientific and less incontrovertible. It extensively collects and presents telling information such as: – 95 percent of the nearly 4,000 death convicts are so poor that they were unable to hire a private attorney. – African Americans comprise 42% of those currently on death row despite the fact that they make up a mere 12% of the total population. – More than 60% of those convicted to die for childhood offenses since the 1976 re-imposition have either been African Americans or Latinos (National Coalition, Fact Sheet).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Being a coalition organization, the NCADP strategy in seeking the legal abolition of death penalty includes forging linkages with state and local, national and international affiliates.   It has local affiliates in Alabama, Arizona and California and its national affiliates include Amnesty International, USA Program   to Abolish the Death Penalty. The NCADP also counts international affiliates from the United Kingdom (Death Penalty UK Death Row: Reprieve UK), Germany (German Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty (GCADP), France (Coalition for Truth and Justice; Ensemble contre la peine de mort) and Botswana (The Botswana Centre for Human Rights). The NCADP also list as an ally the Missourians Against State Killing organization (National Coalition â€Å"Affiliates†). Successes and Failures In evaluating its success or failure, many factors can be used to gauge the NCADP. Organization- and support-wise, America's leading financial evaluator of independent charities, Charity Navigator, shows a successful picture of the NCADP. The National Coalition for the Abolition of the Death Penalty is considered a charity organization and its continued existence as the largest in its advocacy reflects the considerable support the American public has given it. No less than Charity Navigator gives it a thumbs up for financial health. Moreover, Charity Navigator has for the last three years given NCADP a consistent four-star overall rating (60++ percent from 2003-2005). Rating the coalition three stars for efficiency and four stars for capacity, Charity Navigator gives NCADP the highest overall peer rating along with the A.J. Muste Memorial Institute. (Charity Navigator â€Å"Rating,† â€Å"Peer Analysis†). In terms of the success of its mission of abolishing the capital punishment, the milestones in the collective efforts of all anti-death penalty advocates can be considered as success for the coalition organization itself. The NCADP recognizes the 2003 commutation for over 150 death convicts—the largest in modern American history—by Illinois Gov. George Ryan as   ‘a turning point in the debate over capital punishment' in the country (NCADP Welcomes  ¶ 1 & 3). A most recent development is the 2005 Supreme Court in Roper V. Simmons ruling against the imposition of the death penalty for those under 18 years of age at the time of the crime. Another good news came in 2004 when the high court of New York declared death penalty unconstitutional. In terms of failures, the most obvious proof that NCADP has not met its goal is the fact that the capital punishment still exists as legal over more of the United States. Specific legislations have also strengthened death penalty as when President Bill Clinton signed two anti-terrorism laws in 1994 and 1996 that expanded federal death penalty and restricted federal court reviews, respectively (Information Center â€Å"Timeline†). However, judging by public support for and against the death penalty based on protracted Gallup Poll surveys, it would seem that the efforts of the anti-death penalty advocates—including the NCADP's media advocacy—appear to be finally paying off. From the 1970s when the organization was formed until 1994, a great majority of Americans favored the death penalty over life imprisonment as penalty for murder. From 1994 to 1997, however, the number of Americans favoring life imprisonment instead has grown steadily. As of May 2004, even after the September 11 attacks, the number of those who favor death penalty was only marginally higher than those who go for life imprisonment (Information Center â€Å"Public Support†). NCADP has a charity privacy policy that requires the donor to inform the charity to remove his or her name and other contact information from the mailing lists sold, traded or shared. Current leadership of the NCADP has Diann Rust-Tierney as Executive Director and Jason Zanon as the Interim Executive Director (Charity Navigator â€Å"Donor Privacy Policy† ; â€Å"Leadership†). Works Cited Charity Navigator. Charity Rating: National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. Charity Navigator website.;http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm/bay/search.summary/orgid/7734.htm;. Death Penalty Information Center. Part II: History of the Death Penalty. DPIC website. 19 Dec. 2006;http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?scid=15;did=411;. â€Å"Helen Prejean.† Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 11 Dec 2006, 21:42 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 19 Dec 2006 ;http://en.wikipedia.org /w/index.php?title=Helen_Prejean;oldid=93663475;. History of the Death Penalty ; Recent Developments. University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center. Updated 2 May 2005. ;http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/ death/history.html#unitedstates;. Hogan ; Hartson. Announcements. Hogan ; Hartson website. 19 Dec. 20016 ;http://www.hhlaw.com/newsstand/detail.aspx?news=686;. National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. About the NCADP. NCADP website. 19 Dec. 2006 ;http://www.ncadp.org/about_us.html;. National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. Affiliate Links. NCADP website. 19 Dec. 2006 ;http://ncadp.org/affiliate_links.html;. National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. Fact Sheet: The Death Penalty and Racial Bias. NCADP website. 19 Dec. 2006. ;http://www.ncadp.org/fact_sheet2.html;. â€Å"National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.† Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 16 Oct 2006, 22:32 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 19 Dec 2006 ;http://en.wikipedia.org/w/ index.php?title=National_Coalition_to_Abolish_the_Death_Penalty;oldid=81876029;. NCADP Welcomes Largest Commutation Of Death Sentences In Modern U.S. History. 11 Jan. 2003. Initiative gegen die Todesstrafe website.19 Dec. 2006 ;http://www.initiative- gegen-die-todesstrafe.de/ncadp.htm;. ; ; ; ; ;

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Data Mining is a Technique Used to Clarify and Classify Data

Data Mining is a technique used in various domains to give meaning to the available data and different types of Data to be handled like numerical data, non-numeric data, image data...etc. In classification tree modelling the data is classified to make predictions about new data. Using old data to predict new data has the danger of being too fitted on the old data. In this we evaluated different types of data to be collected from UCI repository for classify the data using the different classification algorithms J48, Naive Bayes, Decision Tree, IBK. This paper evaluates the classification accuracy before applying the feature selection algorithms and comparing the classification accuracy after applying the feature selection with learning algorithms. 1. Introduction As computer and database technologies develop rapidly, data accumulates in a speed unmatchable by human capacity of data processing[2]. Data mining as a multidisciplinary joint effort from databases, machine learning and statistics, is championing in turning mountains of data into nuggets. Researchers and practitioners realize that in order to use data mining tools effectively, data processing is essential to successful data mining.PrimitiveThese are features which have an influence on the output and their role cannot be assumed by the rest.[1] Feature selection can be found in many areas of data mining such as classification, clustering, association rules and regression. For example, feature selection isShow MoreRelatedNotes On Association Rule Mining1155 Words   |  5 PagesAssociation Rule Mining: Association Rule Mining is a part of data mining, which are most important techniques. Data Mining is used to extract the required information from a certain total data. 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The process of data collectionRead MoreKnowledge Discovery And Data Mining9834 Words   |  40 PagesKnowledge Discovery and Data Mining are rapidly evolving areas of research that are at intersection of multiple application areas and approaches. Today no field either it belongs to computer or not, knowledge discovery is required. The loss prediction, cost estimation, identification of market moves are the common application areas where knowledge discovery is essential. Knowledge discovery is not an individual process, instead it is the combination of various session data operations that are ap pliedRead MoreCrisp-Dm19407 Words   |  78 PagesCRISP-DM 1.0 Step-by-step data mining guide Pete Chapman (NCR), Julian Clinton (SPSS), Randy Kerber (NCR), Thomas Khabaza (SPSS), Thomas Reinartz (DaimlerChrysler), Colin Shearer (SPSS) and Rà ¼diger Wirth (DaimlerChrysler) SPSS is a registered trademark and the other SPSS products named are trademarks of SPSS Inc. All other names are trademarks of their respective owners.  © 2000 SPSS Inc. CRISPMWP-1104 This document describes the CRISP-DM process model and contains information about the CRISP-DMRead MoreCustomer Relationship Management16994 Words   |  68 Pagesis now seen as the way forward for any business wishing to thrive in the e-future . CRM concentrates on the retention of customers by collecting all data from every interaction, every customer makes with a company from all access points whether they are phone, mail, web or field. The company can then use this data for specific business purposes, Marketing, Service, Support or Sales whilst concentrating on a customer centric approach rather thanRead MoreDecision Making Stages in Mis3645 Words   |  15 Pagesthat it was the right decision. It is said that critical norms in a group improves the quality of decisions, while the majority of opinions (called consensus norms) do not. This is due to collaboration between one another, and when group members get used to, and familiar with, each other, they will tend to argue and create more of a dispute to agree upon one decision. This does not mean that all group members fully agree — they may not want argue further just to be liked by other group members or toRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Small Businesses And Home Businesses2434 Words   |  10 Pageswell as, the digital marketing methods utilised by the owners of the small retailing businesses and home business in the state of Kuwait. Also, to identify and classify the key issues for such e-commerce companies, and the Regulations from Ministry of Trade and Industry for this kind of online-stores. †¢ Common Social Media platforms used in the State of Kuwait In the last 15 years, social media platforms are perceiving as becoming various actual perspectives around the Arab world, and in particularRead More3.Area Of Research.. . Social Media Platforms Were Few2980 Words   |  12 Pagesas well as, the digital marketing methods utilised by the owners of the small retail businesses and home business in the state of Kuwait. Also, to identify and classify the key issues for such e-commerce companies, and the Regulations from Ministry of Trade and Industry for this kind of online-stores. †¢ Common Social Media platforms used in the State of Kuwait In the last 15 years, social media platforms are perceiving as becoming various actual perspectives around the Arab world, and in particularRead MoreFinancial Statements Fraud56771 Words   |  228 Pagesessays on fraud predictors, multi-classifier combination and fraud detection using data mining Johan L. Perols University of South Florida Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd Part of the American Studies Commons Scholar Commons Citation Perols, Johan L., Detecting financial statement fraud: Three essays on fraud predictors, multi-classifier combination and fraud detection using data mining (2008). Graduate School Theses and Dissertations. http://scholarcommons.usfRead MoreReview Quesition20349 Words   |  82 PagesAn organization maintaining all sales order information. 1.2 Discuss the meaning of each of the following terms: (a) data For end users, this constitutes all the different values connected with the various objects/entities that are of concern to them. (b) database A shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data), designed to meet the information needs of an organization. (c) database management system A software system that: enables

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Basics of Environmental Problem Solution Essay Topics

The Basics of Environmental Problem Solution Essay Topics Addressing the correct audience is vital. Should you need direct support or will need to learn about the subject, you can speak to other students and your teacher. Students face a lot of relationship difficulties. At length, do not make a frequent mistake plenty of students make in the concluding paragraph. The Foolproof Environmental Problem Solution Essay Topics Strategy Poverty is an enormous social problem and governments should take action to eradicate poverty. As a consequence, many struggle financially which leads them back to crime, irrespective of the consequences. The collapse is going to be as a consequence of absence of raw materials for its functions. Another important problem is the development of internet fraud and hacking. The Dirty Facts About Environmental Problem Solution Essay Topics Then you describe the probable methods to manage it. If you're in such a scenario, there are a great deal of t hings you can do about it. Otherwise, then the very first point to know is that you ought to start by viewing a variety of topics before choosing one that's suitable. Augmented reality glasses boost the perception of the planet by people with disabilities. Likewise steroid use might be contributing to a number of the violence we see in some sports. Fortunately, there's a variety of feasible solutions which could result in a permanent decrease of the epidemic of childhood obesity. You could also check into possible remedies. Introducing Environmental Problem Solution Essay Topics College degrees reduce the chance of divorce. The new year gives one a good deal of chances to research different essays and the ways how they may be written. Every student ought to be expected to spend a minumum of one semester abroad to promote tolerance. Therefore, many students and employees decide to obtain inexpensive essay rather than writing it themselves. The Environmental Problem Soluti on Essay Topics Stories Thus, when picking a problem solution essay topic, you want to continue in mind your text needs to be persuasive. Last words of advice are that you ought to go for old SAT essays sample to check what kind of essays ought to be written for SAT and you may also pick the books which are specially published for the student to get ready for the SAT papers. If you own a topic provided already, click the order now button to file your request. To receive your creativity flowing, don't hesitate to browse our all-inclusive collection of problem-solution essay and paper topics and see whether you can find one which interests you. You will definitely discover some wonderful ideas if you read some great articles. Thus, you've got to be quite careful whilst recommending the ideas. You have the opportunity to get any effect by means of your essay. When you're assigned to compose a problem-solution essay or research paper, picking a very good topic is the initial dilemma you must work out. The conclusion ought to be encapsulating the entire essay into one paragraph stating the thesis statement once more. It is essential to have a problem-solution topic that's important and interesting for you. Taking baths reduces tension and anxiety. Remember your essay is about solving problems, therefore a solution ought to be a highlight of the essay. Bear in mind, if you prefer your solution to work, you should go for an audience that has the ability to create a solution, not only a group of people irritated by the scenario. Among the great things about problem solution essays is they have a fairly clear structure. There's so much useful info, which may help you invent new solutions and think of personal ideas, or simply motivate you to write what you wish to write. Let's talk about the simple issue and solution essay ideas.